The concepts of stress and addiction are central to Health Psychology. Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome was introduced to psychologists in the early 1950s. Selye observed that traumatic events were enough, by themselves, to induce illness in rats. Later researchers like Arnold Lazarus does levitra work have focused on the specific emotions which make up the stress response and how they may be modified by re-interpreting situations to evoke a different emotion.
Addictive behaviors contribute to more medical problems than any other behaviors. Addiction to alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, and prescription drugs all have distinctive effects which can be very harmful in the long run. Treatment of addiction commonly follows the alcoholics anonymous (AA) model. Self-cure of addiction is possible for many people, but often it requires repeated attempts. People can have “positive addictions” which are those which encourage health and happiness.
Cocaine was different. I liked it very much—too much—and looked forward to different groups that always had it available and even routed them through Atlanta at my convenience to get the drug again. For approximately six months, it was purely recreational. I did not feel hooked, but there buy generic cialis was definitely something different about my chemical makeup when I was using cocaine.
Then a terrible crisis occurred in my life. My husband committed suicide. After his death, I had a great deal of money and was not at all willing to accept the reality of his suicide. Cocaine made that easier for a while. Within six months, I was extremely addicted. I was using buy generic cialis between four and six grams of cocaine each day intravenously. I learned to use the needle from my hiddenheim.biz entertainer friends. I went through $250,000 in fifteen months on cocaine. I could not stop. After all, when I did stop, I was going to have to accept reality.
Ritalin occasionally works wonders with hyperactive children. Parents immediately notice the difference. Suddenly the child takes an interest in schoolwork, follows rules, gets along with others. No wonder Ritalin therapy for hyperactive children became more frequent. Eventually stories of “Ritalin abuse” began to surface. Some students began giving the tablets to friends, and the drug started to be used recreationally by teenagers. Numbers of Ritalin prescriptions dropped somewhat after negative publicity and after a new drug, Adderol, became commonly prescribed for ADHD. Still, Ritalin remained one of the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications for children and teenagerse, and sometimes it helped a lot.
Recently I was diagnosed with ADD (attention deficit disorder). All through high school I struggled with my grades. I just didn’t seem to have any “book sense,” although I had more common sense than you might imagine. Then I came to college where I found it very difficult to make my grades. I was put on academic probation for 3 quarters, and I struggled to bring my GPA up. My mother finally fake viagra ingredients suggested that I had Attention Deficit Disorder because I would study all the time but I didn’t seem to comprehend anything…my brain seemed to wander off and think of more enjoyable things, instead of my studies.
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Mild stress produces a state of activation that can affect virtually any behavior (Antelman & Caggiula, 1980). Note the word mild. The ideal way to create mild stress in a rat is to pinch its tail gently. The tail-pinch is not painful. If you make a tail-pinch painful by increasing its intensity, the rat’s behavior becomes disorganized. Under extreme stress, animals buy anabolic steroids online are not activated; they may “freeze.” However, given a mild tail pinch, a rat becomes activated. After a tail-pinch, a rat with access to food and water will start eating or drinking within a few seconds, even if it is full. Rats can be made obese this way, suggesting an analogy to stress-induced eating in humans.
The concept of stress-induced behavior appears to resurrect one of Hull’s main concepts (actually one he borrowed from earlier psychologists): that of a drive state in which all behaviors are activated. Apparently mild stress acts like Hullian drive. Students should be able to believe that. Under the mild stress of an approaching examination or term paper deadline, previously impossible behaviors are suddenly activated.
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The two modes of consciousness can be doubly dissociated like other distinct brain processes. In other words, brain injury can knock out one type of process while leaving the other undamaged.
This can happen with the syndrome called prosopagnosia or facial blindness. Some brain damaged patients cannot consciously recognize any face, including their own or that of the examiner. Yet they show an unconscious emotional anavar oxandrolone for sale response to familiar faces, when monitored by an apparatus similar to a lie detector. The “heart” recognizes the familiar face, although the “head” does not. Other brain-damaged patients show the exact opposite pattern: they show no emotional reaction to a familiar face, but they consciously recognize faces and can name them.
Bechara, Tranel, Damasio, Adolphs, Rockland, and Damasio found that these responses, too, could be doubly dissociated. They found one patient with damage near the amygdala, which as you may recall is involved in responses such as fear and rage. The patient with amygdalar damage remembered the fact that a loud horn was sounded before each electric shock but showed no emotional reaction anavar oxandrolone for sale to the horn.
Controlled observation occurs when observational research is http://atlantapoolinstallation.com/ carried out under carefully arranged conditions. Each subject is exposed to the same situation, to see differences between individual reactions.
For example, a group of babies may be exposed, one at a time, to a laboratory situation called stranger approaches. A stony-faced stranger approaches the mother and takes the baby out of her arms. Around the age of 7-8 months, some babies seem to find this very alarming. Some cry even at the sight of an approaching stranger. However, not all babies go through this “stranger anxiety” phase. Researchers can test hypotheses about what factors make stranger anxiety more or less likely by testing a variety of mother/baby pairs. The controlled setting and carefully arranged conditions allow researchers to compare reactions of different children.
Controlled observation occurs when observational research is carried out under carefully arranged conditions. Each subject is exposed to the same situation, to see differences between individual reactions.
For example, a group of babies may be exposed, one at a time, to a laboratory situation called stranger http://atlantapoolinstallation.com/ approaches. A stony-faced stranger approaches the mother and takes the baby out of her arms. Around the age of 7-8 months, some babies seem to find this very alarming. Some cry even at the sight of an approaching stranger. However, not all babies go through this “stranger anxiety” phase. Researchers can test hypotheses about what factors make stranger anxiety more or less likely by testing a variety of mother/baby pairs. The controlled setting and carefully arranged conditions allow researchers to compare reactions of different children.