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Around the age of 9-10 in girls, later in boys, appear early signs of secondary sex characteristics appear. These are associated with hormones secreted in adolescence. In girls, the first pre-pubertal changes are the beginnings of breast development and pubic hair. In boys, the genitals increase in size and pubic hair appears, although it is not true pubic hair (coarse and pigmented) until between 13-16 years of age.

Other secondary sex characteristics in males, emerging between the ages of 10 and 16, are body growth and a deepening voice. The prostate glands also mature during this time so the ejaculation of fluids may accompany orgasm, although in young adolescents the sperm may be immature and infertile.

The average age of menarche (onset of menstruation) is about 12.5 years old. There are great variations; some girls begin to menstruate when they are 10, others when 16 or older. Menstruation may be delayed in girls who are thin and exercise vigorously. For example, in a study of 89 ballerinas averaging 16 years old, 20 had not yet menstruated. buy neurontin online Among those who had menstruated, the average age of menarche was 13.5, a year later than average (Frisch, 1980).

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    Person perception is another major type of social cognition research. In many cases, people form first impressions very quickly, based on stereotypes, which Tramadol kaufen can be seen as a form of cognitive economy or shortcut. Snap judgments are affected by verbal descriptions, shown by Asch in some classic experiments. They can also be affected by visual cues, particularly by attractiveness.

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    Ellen Berscheid and colleagues demonstrated a halo effect due to attractiveness. Attractive people are assumed to be smarter, healthier, more sociable, and to have other favorable traits, even those (like sensitive and bold) that seem to contradict each other. In some cases, however, beauty may lead to negative stereotypes, as when a beautiful but quiet person is assumed to be stuck up.

    Robert Rosenthal is famous for his studies of self-fulfilling prophecy in social situations. One study showed that randomly selected children would leap forward in ability during Tramadol kaufen the school year if their teachers expected them to, apparently because the teachers changed their behaviors.

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      Rosenthal’s work had a major impact, because the effect he discovered seemed very important. If teacher expectations have a big impact, there might be all sorts of biasing effects in the school system. Early test scores and other sources of prejudice might keep some students down while encouraging others to leap ahead. Black or Hispanic children might be held back by the negative expectations of white teachers. Similarly, girls might be held back by negative expectations about their abilities in math or science. On a more positive note, perhaps any child could be made to act like a gifted student, simply by planting positive expectations in the minds of teachers.

      Rosenthal notes that the expectancy effect has been documented in business management (where the biasing effect is the expectations of employers about their employees), in courtrooms (where the biasing effect is the expectations about the defendant’s guilt or innocence), and in nursing homes (where the biasing effect is the expectation that a patient will get better or worse). In all cases, the expectations tend to come true, whether they are based on any objective evidence or not. Apparently, as a general rule, people make their expectations come true. Rosenthal’s research shows the Pygmalion effect is not only important; it is robust. It is a strong effect that occurs in many situations.

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        This toothbrush Valium kaufen comes in both right-handed and left-handed versions. It is contoured to fit the hand and has a depression for the thumb. The idea is that since you probably hold your toothbrush with the preferred hand, why not contour it to make it comfortable to hold?

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        The problem with using this toothbrush is in holding it only one way. Ordinarily, people will re-position the toothbrush in their hand as they change from brushing one side of their mouth to the other, or in order to reach all the surfaces of their teeth. The user of this toothbrush faces a dilemma: do I rotate my grip on the handle and go against how the handle is shaped? For example, if the right-handed toothbrush is held as intended, it is difficult to brush the right side of the mouth. The wrist must be held at an awkward angle. If the handle is rotated in the hand, it no longer conforms Valium kaufen to the contour of hand.

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          To spread accurate information about AIDS, highly credible messengers were used. The fact that reputable people were talking calmly about AIDS probably made this analogous to the low-fear condition in the Janis and Feshbach study. The Ugandans did not want to resort to dramatic photos of people dying of AIDS, for example. They wanted to avoid offending people and simply educate them in the steps necessary to prevent AIDS transmission.

          For example, a general who was a war hero and also HIV-positive toured the country, talking about how the virus could and could not be transmitted. Condoms were sold at very low cost, or given away, throughout the country. Young couples were encouraged to wait for marriage before having sex and to stay in monogamous relationships. In rural villages where literacy rates might be as low as 2%, traveling nurses talked to groups of young people in graphic and unembarrassed detail about factors promoting the transmission of the HIV virus.

          The combination of high credibility communicators, fear of AIDS, and specific problem-solving instructions resulted in a dramatic decline in new HIV infections. The percentage of women testing positive for HIV during pre-childbirth exams went down from 30% to 10% in three years. (ABC Nightline, August 7, 1997). Attitudes changed, and—more importantly—so did behaviors.

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            Milgram’s research was controversial, in part because of the stress it put on his subjects. Many psychologists raised the issue of research ethics in connection with Milgram’s research, arguing that it was not acceptable to put subjects through this kind of experience. Milgram (1963) himself made it sound as if participation in his experiment could be traumatic. He quoted a person who observed his experiment:

            I observed a mature and initially poised businessman enter the laboratory smiling and confident. Within 20 minutes he was reduced to a twitching, stuttering wreck who was rapidly approaching a point of nervous collapse. He constantly pulled on his earlobe and twisted his hands. At one point he pushed his fist into his forehead and muttered, “Oh, God, let’s stop it.” And yet he continued to respond to every word of the experimenter and obeyed to the end.

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              The concepts of stress and addiction are central to Health Psychology. Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome was introduced to psychologists in the early 1950s. Selye observed that traumatic events were enough, by themselves, to induce illness in rats. Later researchers like Arnold Lazarus does levitra work have focused on the specific emotions which make up the stress response and how they may be modified by re-interpreting situations to evoke a different emotion.

              Addictive behaviors contribute to more medical problems than any other behaviors. Addiction to alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, and prescription drugs all have distinctive effects which can be very harmful in the long run. Treatment of addiction commonly follows the alcoholics anonymous (AA) model. Self-cure of addiction is possible for many people, but often it requires repeated attempts. People can have “positive addictions” which are those which encourage health and happiness.


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                Cocaine was different. I liked it very much—too much—and looked forward to different groups that always had it available and even routed them through Atlanta at my convenience to get the drug again. For approximately six months, it was purely recreational. I did not feel hooked, but there buy generic cialis was definitely something different about my chemical makeup when I was using cocaine.

                Then a terrible crisis occurred in my life. My husband committed suicide. After his death, I had a great deal of money and was not at all willing to accept the reality of his suicide. Cocaine made that easier for a while. Within six months, I was extremely addicted. I was using buy generic cialis between four and six grams of cocaine each day intravenously. I learned to use the needle from my entertainer friends. I went through $250,000 in fifteen months on cocaine. I could not stop. After all, when I did stop, I was going to have to accept reality.

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                  Ritalin occasionally works wonders with hyperactive children. Parents immediately notice the difference. Suddenly the child takes an interest in schoolwork, follows rules, gets along with others. No wonder Ritalin therapy for hyperactive children became more frequent. Eventually stories of “Ritalin abuse” began to surface. Some students began giving the tablets to friends, and the drug started to be used recreationally by teenagers. Numbers of Ritalin prescriptions dropped somewhat after negative publicity and after a new drug, Adderol, became commonly prescribed for ADHD. Still, Ritalin remained one of the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications for children and teenagerse, and sometimes it helped a lot.


                  Recently I was diagnosed with ADD (attention deficit disorder). All through high school I struggled with my grades. I just didn’t seem to have any “book sense,” although I had more common sense than you might imagine. Then I came to college where I found it very difficult to make my grades. I was put on academic probation for 3 quarters, and I struggled to bring my GPA up. My mother finally fake viagra ingredients suggested that I had Attention Deficit Disorder because I would study all the time but I didn’t seem to comprehend anything…my brain seemed to wander off and think of more enjoyable things, instead of my studies.

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